Magnetic particle Testing (MPT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. The process puts a magnetic field into the part.
Dye penetrant Testing (DPT), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics).
Ultrasonic nondestructive testing, also known as ultrasonic NDT or simply UT, is a method of characterizing the thickness or internal structure of a test piece through the use of high frequency sound waves.
Sound waves are simply organized mechanical vibrations traveling through a medium, which may be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. These waves will travel through a given medium at a specific speed or velocity, in a predictable direction, and when they encounter a boundary with a different medium they will be reflected or transmitted according to simple rules. This is the principle of physics that underlies ultrasonic flaw detection.
Radiographic Testing (RT) – This method of weld testing makes use of X-rays, produced by an X-ray tube, or gamma rays, produced by a radioactive isotope. The basic principle of radiographic inspection of welds is the same as that for medical radiography.
Hardness is a measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Some materials (e.g. metals) are harder than others (e.g. plastics).